String encodings is like air. Completely necessary and never on your mind until something goes wrong. Encoding bugs are painful and often feel like the black arts. Follow the jump for an aggregation of past experiences for solving these tricky problems.
The first time you think of encodings in Ruby is probably the first time you see an exception along the lines of:
incompatible character encodings: ASCII-8BIT and UTF-8
Before you pull out your hair, I recommend reading James Edward Grey II's in depth coverage on why and what encodings are. Markus Prinz's Working with Encodings in Ruby 1.9 is also a good read. Go ahead, this article will wait.
The core cause of the above error is when your code tries to mash two strings
with different encodings together. For example, trying to glue a UTF-8 Chinese
string to an ASCII-8BIT English string. They're hard to hunt down because the
error is generated in C code and doesn't descend from the Exception class.
This means you can't
rescue the error to inspect it. Your best tool for
finding the origin of the error is to learn about the Encoding
module. Once you're familiar with that API, it's easy to inspect the encoding
to check it's what you expected.
"some string".encoding "some string".force_encoding('UTF-8')
Rails defaults to UTF-8 for encoding. You can change it via application.rb with:
config.encoding = 'UTF-8'
Yehuda Katz has a good write
describing the problem. The long term solution is to have
libraries that deal with external strings to respect
To make sure your database uses the correct encoding, set your connection adapter to the correct encoding:
# config/database.yml development: encoding: unicode
When template views are read in from the filesystem, it respects the global ruby default for encoding. This can be overridden by a special shebang-like declaration at the top of the file:
# encoding: utf-8
Check out ActionView::Template#encode! for more details.
If you're seeing an incompatible encoding error in a view, it's possible that
it's caused by rendering a value from an external gem or string. Remember that
render method returns a string. A quick way to inspect that your
partials are in the correct encoding is to save the result of a partial into a
variable and print it's encoding:
<% output = render(:partial => 'some/partial') %> <%= output.encoding %>
Don't forget to set your environment variable to the correct default encoding.
$ heroku config:add LANG=en_US.UTF-8